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the hindu analysis 17 october 2023 success hard work quote


  1. The Indian Himalayan Region needs its own EIA - Page No.6 , GS 3
  2. Confronting the long-term risks of Artificial Intelligence - Page No.6 , GS 3
  3. Delay as tactic - Page No.6, GS 2
  4. No dengue epicentre so far in 2023 - Page No.7 , GS 2
  5. Court declines abortion plea - Page No. 12, GS 2
  6. Cough syrup samples for testing - Page No. 12, GS 2
  7. Text and Context - Palliative care

The Indian Himalayan Region needs its own EIA - Page No.6 , GS 3

The Indian Himalayan Region needs its own EIA
  • The Testa dam breach in Sikkim in early October and the recent floods and landslides in Himachal Pradesh are a stark reminder of the havoc our development model is wreaking on our environment and ecology especially in the mountains.
  • Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is one such process defined by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) as a tool to identify the environmental, social, and economic impacts of a project before it is implemented.
  • This tool compares various alternatives for the proposed project, predicts and analyses all possible environmental repercussions in various scenarios. The EIA also helps decide appropriate mitigation strategies.
  • In India, a precursor to the ElA began in 1976-77 when the Planning Commission directed the Department of Science and Technology to assess the river valley projects from the environmental point of view.
  • On January 27, 1994, the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 (EPA), promulgated the first ElA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for setting up some specified new projects and also for expansion or modernisation of some specific activities.
  • The notification of 1994 saw 12 amendments in 11 years before it was replaced by the EIA 2006 notification.

  • What is EIA Notification 2006?

  • Decentralisation of Project Clearances: It classified the developmental projects in two categories:
  • Category A (national level appraisal): projects are appraised by Impact Assessment Agency (IA) and the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC).
  • Category B (state level appraisal): State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) and State Level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC) provide clearance to the Category B projects.
  • Projects with Mandatory Clearance: Projects such as mining, thermal power plants, river valley, infrastructure (road, highway, ports, harbours and airports) and industries including very small electroplating or foundry units are mandated to get environment clearance.

Confronting the long-term risks of Artificial Intelligence - Page No.6 , GS 3

Confronting the long-term risks of Artificial Intelligence
  • One should be a bit worried about the intermediate and existential risks of more evolved Al systems of the future — for instance, if essential infrastructure such as water and electricity increasingly rely on Al.
  • Any malfunction or manipulation of such Al systems could disrupt these pivotal services, potentially hampering societal functions and public well-being.
  • The challenge lies in aligning Al with universally accepted human values.
  • Furthermore, the confluence of technology with warfare amplifies long-term risks. Addressing the perils of military Al is crucial.

Delay as tactic - Page No.6, GS 2

Delay as tactic
  • The Centre's assurance to the Supreme Court that it would soon notify the appointment of Justice Siddharth Mridul of the Delhi High Court as Chief Justice (CJ) of the Manipur High Court is a welcome development.
  • In another sign that it would be more accommodative of the Collegium's recommendations, it has forwarded as many as 70 names approved by constitutional authorities in various States for appointment as judges of High Courts.
  • The delay in notifying the appointment of Justice Mridul was apparently due to the State government taking time to give its views on the proposal.
  • The Court has been vocal about the Centre's selective treatment of its recommendations. There are instances of the government returning names that had been reiterated more than once.

No dengue epicentre so far in 2023 - Page No.7 , GS 2

No dengue epicentre so far in 2023
  • This year, close to 95,000 dengue cases have been recorded in India until September 17, leading to over 90 deaths. The fact that the case burden is spread out across many regions is unusual.
  • In general, dengue follows a pattern in India where one region bears a disproportionately high case burden one year, followed by another region the next year.
  • This year, Kerala and Karnataka in the south have recorded the highest number of cases (over 9,000 each) followed by Maharashtra in the west (8,496 cases), Odisha in the east (6,563), Uttar Pradesh in the north (5,742), and Assam in the north-east (5,604).
  • Dengue transmission is closely associated with three key factors - rainfall, humidity and temperature — which dictate the geographies in which dengue spreads and the transmission rate.
  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus (Genus Flavivirus), transmitted by several species of female mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally Aedes aegypti.
  • This mosquito also transmits chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika infection.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment:

  • Diagnosis of dengue infection is done with a blood test.
  • There is no specific medicine to treat dengue infection.
  • Wolbachia are extremely common bacteria that occur naturally in 50 per cent of insect species, including some mosquitoes, fruit flies, moths, dragonflies and butterflies.
  • Wolbachia are safe for humans and the environment.
  • Independent risk analyses indicate that the release of Wolbachia- infected mosquitoes poses negligible risk to humans and the environment.
  • Wolbachia live inside insect cells and are passed from one generation to the next through an insect's eggs.
  • Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. don't normally carry Wolbachia, however many other mosquitoes do.
  • The Wolbachia is maternally transmitted from mother to offs; and gradually spreads across the population.
  • The Wolbachia inhibits the multiplication of the dengue virus wen precent in the mosquitoes

Court declines abortion plea - Page No. 12, GS 2

Court declines abortion plea
  • The Supreme Court on Monday declined a married woman's plea to medically terminate her 26-week pregnancy, saying the court is averse to ordering doctors to "stop the heartbeat" of the foetus when medical reports say she will give birth to a "viable baby"
  • A three-judge Bench headed by Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud made it clear that the woman cannot claim an "absolute, overriding right" to abort, especially when multiple reports from the AIMS medical Board have confirmed that the pregnancy was not a cause of immediate danger to her life or the foetus.
  • Section 5 of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act prescribes medical termination if the pregnancy was "immediately necessary to save the life of the pregnant woman"
  • Chief Justice Chandrachud said the term 'life' used in this provision cannot be equated to the broader meaning in which 'life is used in Article 21 of Constitution. Article 21 upholds an individual's fundamental right to a dignified, meaningful life.

Cough syrup samples for testing - Page No. 12, GS 2

cough syrup samples for testing
  • Two laboratories - one Central and one State - are analysing the bulk of cough syrup samples brought in for testing before they are exported, shows the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) list issued in October. The country has 15 Central and State-run laboratories engaged in cough syrup sample testing.
  • The Union government issued a notification early this year making it compulsory from June 1 for cough syrup manufacturers to secure a certificate of analysis from government-approved laboratories.
  • The order came following a World Health Organization product alert in cases of syrup products being exported from India.
  • India is the world's third largest maker of drugs by volume after the l China.
  • According to the CDSCO, the number of batches of cough syrup sampl received for testing in Central/ State drug testing laboratories in two centres- CDTL, Mumbai, and the Food and Drug Laboratory, Gujarat - is 176.
  • What is CDSCO?
  • It is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940.
  • It works under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India.
  • Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, CDSCO is responsible for -
  • Approval of Drugs.
  • Conduct Clinical Trials.
  • Laying down the standards for Drugs.
  • Control over the quality of imported Drugs in the country.
  • Coordination of the activities of State Drug Control Organizations.
  • Further CDSCO along with state regulators, is jointly responsible for the of licences to certain specialised categories of critical Drugs such as Vaccines and sera, etc.
  • The Indian government has announced plans to subject all medical devices including implants and contraception, to CDSCO scrutiny.

Text and Context - Palliative care

  • Non-communicable diseases will push more and more people into poverty as they require lifelong treatment and periodic health check-ups. However, the financial implications for a family associated with the continuous treatment of these diseases often go unnoticed in our health system.
  • Palliative care is a branch of medicine that looks at improving the quality of life of those having life-limiting illnesses like cancers, end-stage kidney disease, debilitating brain disorders, complications of diabetes, and heart disease among others.
  • It is different from other medical specialities as it focuses on alleviating uncontrolled symptoms of the incurable illnesses mentioned above, and preventing non-beneficial investigations, and treatments.
  • It takes into consideration not just the physical dimension of health but also actively looks at the social and economic realities of the patient and the family.
  • With only 1.35% of the gross domestic product (GDP) being spent on government health services, patients bear most of the health expenses.
  • Even in government hospitals where treatment is supposed to be free, the cost of travel, purchasing medicines that many a time are out of stock in government pharmacies, and loss of wages due to the absence from work contribute to the financial toxicity.
  • Early initiation of palliative care in patients with advanced disease has shown to reduce health expenditure by up to 25%.